Black holes: A Mystery

            We all are fascinated by this beautiful world around us. The trees, animals, and the habitat we live in. While the fascinating thing that we are always curious about is the solar system that we belong to.  Apart from our galaxy Milky Way, there exist many other galaxies which are still unknown to us and yet to be discovered. Like our planet earth, there are many other planets and stars we do not have any idea about. From many years, Scientists and researchers are studying the solar system and found great discoveries. And one such great discovery was made by the late Stephen Hawking about the black holes. It is the most talked about and the most exciting topic for all the physicists and scientists around the world. Various theories relate to the existence of black holes. The prevalent one being the general theory of relativity given by the great physicist of his time Albert Einstein. This theory ensured the existence of black holes.

            The black hole is a black dense area in the space which cannot be seen and has a strong gravitational field around its region. It is so dense that even light cannot escape this strong gravitational field. Black holes can be as small as an atom or it could be so giant to accommodate millions of suns. A ‘Stellar’ is a black hole which is 20 times as large as a sun. A largest black hole called ‘Supermassive’ is million times larger than the sun. So do you know how a black hole is formed? A black hole is a byproduct of the explosion of the massive stars. This explosion of a massive star is known as a supernova. A supernova consists of heavier matter and a large amount of energy. It produces energy due to nuclear fusion which causes the energy to implode. As more and more energy gets implode the particles come closer. As the particles become very much closer the pressure keeps on increasing and at one particular time the star explodes, i.e., the supernova dies. A supernova is a rare phenomenon so is a black hole. A black hole gets formed with the particles scattered in the space. Black holes show eventual growth once it is formed. But how can a black hole grow? Yes, it does! It grows by absorbing surrounding matter or interstellar dust which results in the formation of a supermassive black hole. 

        Scientists have been trying to get an idea about what exactly happens inside a black hole. Although not much could be found about what is precisely inside a black hole the behavior near the black hole boundary is being studied with the help of String theory. The boundary region of a black hole is called the event horizon. A major problem with a black hole is that it cannot be easily detected through a telescope and requires much of the resources to do the same. To detect a black hole, researchers have come up with a simple idea. They observe the space and look for a planet or a star which is revolving around a space. Also, if any collision between two black holes occurs, it creates gravitational waves which are detected by LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) detector. It is the largest observatory to detect cosmic gravitational wave which exploits the properties of light and space to detect the origin of such waves. It made its very first observation in the year 2015 which was successful. Scientists have also tried creating a black hole in the earth’s atmosphere by various and have been successful in it.

          Over recent years, scientists have also been suggesting that a piece of physical information entering a black hole is lost forever. Many have argued about the same but did not found actual proof of it. Since a black hole has a strong gravitational field around it, a question arises that can black holes destroy our planet earth? The answer is No. There does not exist a black hole in the vicinity of our solar system. Even the sun does not have such a large amount of energy to become a black hole. But even if it does, the planets would still revolve around it as in case of the sun. Now and then, various discoveries are being observed about the black hole which is making the scientists and researchers more curious to study about it.

By: Khushboo Patel

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